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General informatioan about krocina

 


Composition:
Each scored-tablet contains:
Total crocin 15 mg
General information: 
Krocina tablet contains “crocin”; which is a natural drug carotenoid chemical compound that is responsible for the color of saffron. It is the main active constituent and antioxidant in saffron stigmas. Thus, the saffron health benefits and medicinal properties are attributed to this component. Crocin, as a medicinal supplement, is a mood enhancer with antidepressant properties. Therapeutic effects of crocin on depression, anxiety and general health were demonstrated in a clinical trial. It has also been shown to have an antiproliferative action against cancer cells, anti-alzheimer and neuroprotective effects, aphrodisiac properties against sexual dysfunction, therapeutic effects against eye disorders such as age-related macular degeneration and retinal protection in diabetic patients, hypoglycemic effects. As a powerful antioxidant, crocin showed beneficial properties in metabolic syndrome. Preliminary research in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences demonstrated the efficacy of crocin in burning mouth syndrome (BMS) which is an idiopathic condition characterized by a continuous burning sensation of the mucosa of the mouth, typically involving the tongue, with or without extension to the lips and oral mucosa.      
Indication: 
Krocina is used as a mood enhancer in depression, Alzheimer’s disease, sexual dysfunction, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, metabolic syndrome and diabetes, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), prevention or control the cancer.
Mode of action: 
Some preliminary research suggests that crocin affect dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin levels in the brain. It seems that its antidepressant properties are mediated through regulation of these neurotransmitters in the brain. Previous studies indicated that crocin, as an anti-Alzheimer agent, inhibits amyloid β-peptide fibrillogenesis, formation and deposition in the brain. Crocin could decrease cholesteryl esters (CE) in macrophages and uptake of Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), inhibiting the formation of foam cell, which would promote the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Crocin exerted antiatherosclerotic effects through decreasing the level of Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) that plays an important role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Other researchers demonstrated that antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of saffron and crocin protect photoreceptors against oxidative damages in the early stages of age-related macular degeneration. The retinal protection effect of crocin in diabetic retinopathy was also demonstrated in a study in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Crocetin (a metabolite of crocin) prevented AGEs-induced vascular endothelial apoptosis and diabetes-associated vascular complications. It seems that crocin enhances the sensitivity of tissues (skeletal muscle cells, liver, etc) to insulin and glucose absorption by insulin-sensitive cells and thereby lowers the blood glucose level. Some researches revealed that crocetin (crocin converts to crocetin in body) increased serum level of nitric oxide (NO). It is possible that, as an aphrodisiac agent, crocin acts in a way similar to PDE-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil. Crocin induced erythroid differentiation and efficiently inhibited cell growth of K562 tumor cells. It can also be used as a prodrug for all-trans retinoic acid-sensitive cancers. Efficacy of crocin in colon adenocarcinoma has been demonstrated in animal models.
Dosage and administration:
The usual dose is one or two tables with a meal in the morning and night. 
Side effects:
No serious adverse effect has been reported in clinical trials. Hypersensitivity to crocin or other ingredients in saffron extract should be considered.
Drug interaction: 
Krocina potentiates anticoagulation effect of warfarin in patients. Thus, it should be prescribed with PT test control. No other serious interaction was reported. Nevertheless, to avoid interactions with other drugs, the patient shall inform the physician if he/she is taking another medicine.
Over dosage: 
None reported. The patients should inform the physician in over dosage. 
Precautions: 
Please avoid using the drug in the history of hypersensitivity to crocin or other ingredients in saffron extract. 
Do not give the drug to anyone else.
Contraindication: 
Do not use in children less than 12 years old. Avoid using in pregnancy. 
Category in pregnancy: 

Storage: 
Keep out of reach of children.
Do not use the medicine after expiry date.
Store below 30C.

References: 
1- RK Singla, VG Bhat, Crocin: an overview, Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2011; 1(4): 281-286. 
2- Falsini B, Piccardi M, Minnella A, Savastano C, Capoluongo E, Fadda A, Balestrazzi E, Maccarone R, Bisti S, Influence of saffron supplementation on retinal flicker sensitivity in early age-related macular degeneration, Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51(12):6118-24. 
3- Hosseini A, Mousavi SH, Ghanbari A, Homaee Shandiz F, Raziee HR, Pezeshki Rad M, Mousavi SH, Effect of saffron on liver metastases in patients suffering from cancers with liver metastases: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015 Sep-Oct;5(5):434-40.
4- Lopresti AL, Drummond PD, Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014 Nov;29(6):517-27.
5- Mousavi B, Bathaie SZ, Fadai F, Ashtari Z, Ali Beigi N, Farhang S, Hashempour S, Shahhamzei N, Heidarzadeh H, Safety evaluation of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) aqueous extract and crocin in patients with schizophrenia. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015 Sep-Oct; 5(5):413-9.
6- Farokhnia M, Shafiee Sabet M, Iranpour N, Gougol A, Yekehtaz H, Alimardani R, Farsad F, Kamalipour M, Akhondzadeh S, Comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. with memantine in patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014 Jul;29(4):351-9.
7- Kashani L, Raisi F, Saroukhani S, Sohrabi H, Modabbernia A, Nasehi AA, Jamshidi A, Ashrafi M, Mansouri P, Ghaeli P, Akhondzadeh S, Saffron for treatment of fluoxetine-induced sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2013 Jan;28(1):54-60. 
8- Piccardi M, Marangoni D, Minnella AM, Savastano MC, Valentini P, Ambrosio L, Capoluongo E, Maccarone R, Bisti S, Falsini B. A longitudinal follow-up study of saffron supplementation in early age-related macular degeneration: sustained benefits to central retinal function. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012: 429124.
9- Fadai F, Mousavi B, Ashtari Z, Ali beigi N, Farhang S, Hashempour S, Shahhamzei N, Bathaie SZ. Saffron aqueous extract prevents metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia on olanzapine treatment: a randomized triple blind placebo controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2014 Jul;47(4-5):156-61.
10- Kermani T, Mousavi SH, Shemshian M, Norouzy A, Mazidi M, Moezzi A, Moghiman T, Ghayour-Mobarhan M, A Ferns G. Saffron supplements modulate serum pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Avicenna J Phytomed. 2015 Sep-Oct;5(5):427-33.

 

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